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  • AVH Genetics

    Introduction

     

    Much like in real life, the genes play an vital role in determining the colors and the white markings of a foal.

    On AVH the simplified model states the following:

    All horses have their colors encoded into a series of color genes, each formed by a pair of alleles that can be:

    1. dominant (represented by capital letters)
    2. recessive (represented by lower-case letters).

    Example

    The alleles of the 'black gene' can have one of the following forms:

    1. BB - Black
    2. Bb - Black
    3. bB - Black
    4. bb - Chestnut

     

    Notes

    1. All the color genes (except the agouti gene) will have a similar form with the one in the example
    2. The existing form for each color gene influences the coat color and the form of the color genes passed to the offsprings.

    Breeding

    When horses are bred the genetic information of the foals will be formed of pairs of alleles that are inherited from both parents. This means that for each pair of the alleles both provides one allele.

    Example: If the mare has the black gene B b and the stallion has it b B, the resulting foals can have any combination, as long as one allele from each parent is used.

    B1 b1 X b2 B2 can be:

    1. B1 b2
    2. B1 B2
    3. b1 b2
    4. b1 B2

    Note: This breeding process happens for all the pairs of alleles, so the result is that the genes combinations are extremely diverse.

     

    The color genes

    These are the genes present in the game:

     

    The black gene (B)

    The black gene (B)

     

    Alleles: B b

    Description: By default all colors are Chestnut (bb), but when at least one of the alleles is dominant (B), the coat becomes black.

    Forms:

    1. BB - Black
    2. Bb - Black
    3. bB - Black
    4. bb - Chestnut

     

    The agouti gene (A)

    The agouti gene (A)

     

    Description: This gene is responsible for determining where the black coloring goes on the body of the horse, creating sealbrowns and bay horses.

    Notes:

    1. The effect of the agouti gene is visible only on the black horses (that have at least one B allele). 
    2. Unlike all the other colors, the alleles of the Agouti gene have 4 possible values (instead of just dominant and recessive):
      1. a - recessive, will leave the horse completely black
      2. AT - creates seal browns
      3. A - creates bay horses
      4. A+ - responsible for the wild bay horses

    Forms:

    1. a a - Black
    2. AT a  - Seal Brown
    3. A a - Bay
    4. A+ a - Wild Bay
    5. a AT - Seal Brown
    6. AT AT - Seal Brown
    7. A AT - Bay
    8. A+ AT - Bay
    9. a A - Bay
    10. AT A - Bay
    11. A A - Bay
    12. A+ A - Wild bay
    13. a A+ - Wild bay
    14. AT A+ - Wild bay
    15. A A+ - Wild bay
    16. A+ A+ - Wild bay

    The white gene (W)

    The white gene (W)

     

    Description: This gene is responsible for creating white horses.

    Note: If a horse carries the W gene, the color will be white, regardless of what the other genes are.

     

    Forms:

    1. ww - Color depends on the other genes
    2. Ww & wW & WW - White

     

     

    The gray gene (G)

    The gray gene (G)

     

    Description: This gene is responsible for creating gray horses.

    Note: If a horse carries the W gene, the color will be white, regardless of what the other genes are (except the white gene).

     

    Forms:

    1. gg - Color depends on the other genes
    2. Gg & gG & GG - Gray (unless the White gene is dominant)

    The cream gene (CR)

    The cream gene (CR)

     

    Description: This gene is called a dilution gene and when present it is responsible for creating lighter coats on the horses. It will create Palomino & Cremello (for the chestnut coats), Smoky Black & Smoky Cream (for the black coat) or Buckskin & Perlino (for the bay coat). Unlike the agouti gene, it influences both the black and the chestnut horses.

    Notes:

     

    1. It is a complex gene and in combination with other genes can create many different cream colors.
    2. When both cream alleles are dominant [CR CR], the resulted colors will be different than when only one is (CR cr)

    Forms:

    1. cr cr - Color depends on the other genes
    2. CR cr & cr CR - Responsible for creating diluted colors like Diluted Seal Brown, Palomino, Smoky Black and Buckskin
    3. CR CR -  Responsible for creating colors like Cremello, Smoky Cream, Seal Brown Cream and Perlino

    Generated colors: Amber Cream, Buckskin, Classic Cream, Cream Grulla, Sable Cream, Seal Brown Cream, Smoky Cream, Smoky Grulla, Cremello, Diluted Seal Brown,Palomino, Perlino, Perlino Dun, Gold Cream

    The dun gene (D)

    Add dun gene

    The champagne gene (CH)

    Add champagne gene

    The flaxen gene (F)

    Add flaxen gene

    The silver gene (Z)

    Add silver gene

    The roan gene (RN)

    The Roan gene (RN)

     

    Description: This gene is responsible for determining roan coloring, creating strawberry roan, blue roan and bay roan horses.

    Forms:

    1. RN B - Blue roan
    2. RN B AT A or A+ bay roan
    3. RN - strawberry roan

    The patterns genes

    The rabicano gene (RB)

     

    Click to see more

    The sooty gene (ST)

    Click to see more

    The tobiano gene (TO)

    Click to see more

    The overo gene (O)

    Click to see more

    The splashed gene (SP)

    Add *splashed Click to see more

    The leopard gene (LP)

    Click to see more

    The blanket gene (LK)

    Click to see more

    The sabino gene (SB)

    Click to see more

    The snowflake gene (SN)

    Click to see more

    The zebra gene (TG)

    Add *tg Click to see more

    Links: Multiple patterns and marking

    The white markings

    Depending on the breed, horses can have various leg and facial markings.

    This is the markings that horses can get on AVH:

     

    Pangare

    Click to see more

    Leg markings

     

    The AVH horses have the following leg markings: Coronet, Fetlock, Pastern, Socks and Stockings.

    Note: The leg markings can occur on one or more legs. Genetically, the markings for each leg have a pair of alleles, so when horses breed, the foals have a chance of inheriting one or more markings. The leg markings are noted from 1 to 4 (like Sock1, Sock2, Sock3, Sock4). Each number is associated with the markings for a certain leg:

    1. Front right leg.
    2. Front left leg.
    3. Rear left leg.
    4. Rear right leg.

     

    Links: Read more about leg markings on wikipedia

     

     

    Coronet

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    Fetlock

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    Pastern

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    Sock

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    Stocking

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    Facial markings

     

    The AVH horses have the following facial markings: Snip, Star, Strip, Blaze and Bald Face.

    Links: Read more about facial markings on wikipedia

     

     

    Snip

    Click to see more

    Star

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    Strip

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    Blaze

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    Bald Face

    Click to see more

     

     

     

    Wagn v.
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